sator-technology-blog
we-are-star-stuff:

The Physics of Santa Claus
No known species of reindeer can fly. But there are 300,000 species of living organisms yet to be classified, and while most of these are insects and germs, this does not COMPLETELY rule out flying reindeer which only Santa has ever seen.
There are 2 billion children (persons under 18) in the world. But since Santa doesn’t (appear) to handle the Muslim, Hindu, Jewish and Buddhist children, that reduces the workload to 15% of the total - 378 million according to Population Reference Bureau. At an average (census) rate of 3.5 children per household, that’s 91.8 million homes. One presumes there’s at least one good child in each.
Assuming one mince pie (250kcal) and one 50ml glass of sherry per household (58kcal) we have 308 calories times 91.8 million households, or  28,274,400,000kcal. The recommended daily allowance for an adult male, according to the Department of Health, is 2,550kcal. Santa will therefore eat 11,087,999 times his daily dues.
The aforementioned 50ml glass of sherry works out at around one unit of alcohol, according to the UK definition. So Santa would be expected to knock back 91,800,000 units over the course of the evening. The daily recommended maximum for a man is four units, meaning that Santa is endangering his health by drinking 22,949,999 times the DoH limits. Worse, he is likely to be in no fit state to drive his sleigh. The legal blood alcohol limit is 80mg per 100mls of blood, or roughly four units (although this of course would be less for a big man). So Santa would also be at least 20 million times the legal driving limit as well, and would probably have his licence revoked.
Santa has 31 hours of Christmas to work with, thanks to the different time zones and the rotation of the earth, assuming he travels east to west (which seemes logical). This works out to 822.6 visits per second. This is to say that for each Christian household with good children, Santa has 1/1000th of a second to park, hop out of the sleigh, jump down the chimney, fill the stockings, distribute the remaining presents under the tree, eat whatever snacks have been left, get back up the chimney, get back into the sleigh and move on to the next house. Assuming that each of these 91.8 million stops are evenly distributed around the earth (which, of course, we know to be false but for the purposes of our calculations we will accept), we are now talking about .78 miles per household, a total trip of 75-1/2 million miles, not counting stops to do what most of us must do at least once every 31 hours, plus feeding and etc. 
This means that Santa’s sleigh is moving at 650 miles per second, 3,000 times the speed of sound. For purposes of comparison, the fastest man-made vehicle on earth, the Ulysses space probe, moves at a pokey 27.4 miles per second - a conventional reindeer can run, tops, 15 miles per hour.

The payload on the sleigh adds another interesting element. Assuming that each child gets nothing more than a medium-sized lego set (2 pounds), the sleigh is carrying 321,300 tons, not counting Santa, who is invariably described as overweight. On land, conventional reindeer can pull no more than 300 pounds. Even granting that “flying reindeer” (see point #1) could pull ten times the normal anount, we cannot do the job with eight, or even nine. We need 214,200 reindeer. This increases the payload - not even counting the weight of the sleigh - to 353,430 tons.
353,000 tons travelling at 650 miles per second creates enourmous air resistance - this will heat the reindeer up in the same fashion as spacecrafts re-entering the earth’s atmosphere. The lead pair of reindeer will absorb 14.3 quintillion joules of energy. Per second. Each. In short, they will burst into flame almost instantaneously, exposing the reindeer behind them, and create deafening sonic booms in their wake. The entire reindeer team will be vaporized within 4.26 thousandths of a second. Santa, meanwhile, will be subjected to centrifugal forces 17,500.06 times greater than gravity. A 250-pound Santa (which seems ludicrously slim) would be pinned to the back of his sleigh by 4,315,015 pounds of force.
In conclusion: if Santa ever DID deliver presents on Christmas Eve, he’s dead now.

we-are-star-stuff:

The Physics of Santa Claus

  • No known species of reindeer can fly. But there are 300,000 species of living organisms yet to be classified, and while most of these are insects and germs, this does not COMPLETELY rule out flying reindeer which only Santa has ever seen.
  • There are 2 billion children (persons under 18) in the world. But since Santa doesn’t (appear) to handle the Muslim, Hindu, Jewish and Buddhist children, that reduces the workload to 15% of the total - 378 million according to Population Reference Bureau. At an average (census) rate of 3.5 children per household, that’s 91.8 million homes. One presumes there’s at least one good child in each.
  • Assuming one mince pie (250kcal) and one 50ml glass of sherry per household (58kcal) we have 308 calories times 91.8 million households, or  28,274,400,000kcal. The recommended daily allowance for an adult male, according to the Department of Health, is 2,550kcal. Santa will therefore eat 11,087,999 times his daily dues.
  • The aforementioned 50ml glass of sherry works out at around one unit of alcohol, according to the UK definition. So Santa would be expected to knock back 91,800,000 units over the course of the evening. The daily recommended maximum for a man is four units, meaning that Santa is endangering his health by drinking 22,949,999 times the DoH limits. Worse, he is likely to be in no fit state to drive his sleigh. The legal blood alcohol limit is 80mg per 100mls of blood, or roughly four units (although this of course would be less for a big man). So Santa would also be at least 20 million times the legal driving limit as well, and would probably have his licence revoked.
  • Santa has 31 hours of Christmas to work with, thanks to the different time zones and the rotation of the earth, assuming he travels east to west (which seemes logical). This works out to 822.6 visits per second. This is to say that for each Christian household with good children, Santa has 1/1000th of a second to park, hop out of the sleigh, jump down the chimney, fill the stockings, distribute the remaining presents under the tree, eat whatever snacks have been left, get back up the chimney, get back into the sleigh and move on to the next house. Assuming that each of these 91.8 million stops are evenly distributed around the earth (which, of course, we know to be false but for the purposes of our calculations we will accept), we are now talking about .78 miles per household, a total trip of 75-1/2 million miles, not counting stops to do what most of us must do at least once every 31 hours, plus feeding and etc. 

    This means that Santa’s sleigh is moving at 650 miles per second, 3,000 times the speed of sound. For purposes of comparison, the fastest man-made vehicle on earth, the Ulysses space probe, moves at a pokey 27.4 miles per second - a conventional reindeer can run, tops, 15 miles per hour.

  • The payload on the sleigh adds another interesting element. Assuming that each child gets nothing more than a medium-sized lego set (2 pounds), the sleigh is carrying 321,300 tons, not counting Santa, who is invariably described as overweight. On land, conventional reindeer can pull no more than 300 pounds. Even granting that “flying reindeer” (see point #1) could pull ten times the normal anount, we cannot do the job with eight, or even nine. We need 214,200 reindeer. This increases the payload - not even counting the weight of the sleigh - to 353,430 tons.
  • 353,000 tons travelling at 650 miles per second creates enourmous air resistance - this will heat the reindeer up in the same fashion as spacecrafts re-entering the earth’s atmosphere. The lead pair of reindeer will absorb 14.3 quintillion joules of energy. Per second. Each. In short, they will burst into flame almost instantaneously, exposing the reindeer behind them, and create deafening sonic booms in their wake. The entire reindeer team will be vaporized within 4.26 thousandths of a second. Santa, meanwhile, will be subjected to centrifugal forces 17,500.06 times greater than gravity. A 250-pound Santa (which seems ludicrously slim) would be pinned to the back of his sleigh by 4,315,015 pounds of force.

In conclusion: if Santa ever DID deliver presents on Christmas Eve, he’s dead now.

unexplained-events
sixpenceee:

Many people have no opinion or assume octopuses are stupid, spineless creatures.
But their brains are the largest of all the invertebrates. Their neurons are massed into lobes like ours. Their brains runs on a  a decentralized nervous system, two-thirds of which is distributed in the eight arms and legs.
Recent evidence shows that octopuses possess intelligence. For example, they can:
Open jars (video)

Mimic other sea creatures (video)

Did you know that when threatened, an octopus may turn white and puff up to scare the predator. It’ll then shoot ink to distract the predator and zig-zag through water to quickly camouflage itself among the coral. (Video)

In a test done by Oxford biologist N.S. Sutherland, Octopuses were given a treat if they picked one shape over the other. They soon learned that a rectangle was a rectangle no matter how it was oriented. 
Octopuses proved to have excellent memory. Scientific journals have publish research papers on octopus learning, octopus personality, octopus memory. Now the octopus has even made it into the pages of the journal Consciousness and Cognition.
It’s important to note that intelligence here, is defined in a different way. It’s suited towards their conditions and environment. 
(Source) (Source)

sixpenceee:

Many people have no opinion or assume octopuses are stupid, spineless creatures.

But their brains are the largest of all the invertebrates. Their neurons are massed into lobes like ours. Their brains runs on a  a decentralized nervous system, two-thirds of which is distributed in the eight arms and legs.

Recent evidence shows that octopuses possess intelligence. For example, they can:

Open jars (video)

Mimic other sea creatures (video)

Did you know that when threatened, an octopus may turn white and puff up to scare the predator. It’ll then shoot ink to distract the predator and zig-zag through water to quickly camouflage itself among the coral. (Video)

In a test done by Oxford biologist N.S. Sutherland, Octopuses were given a treat if they picked one shape over the other. They soon learned that a rectangle was a rectangle no matter how it was oriented. 

Octopuses proved to have excellent memory. Scientific journals have publish research papers on octopus learning, octopus personality, octopus memory. Now the octopus has even made it into the pages of the journal Consciousness and Cognition.

It’s important to note that intelligence here, is defined in a different way. It’s suited towards their conditions and environment. 

(Source) (Source)

theblackship

violethyenamaxxie:

thaxted:

moniquill:

universalequalityisinevitable:

Robert Sapolsky about his study of the Keekorok baboon troop from National Geographic’s Stress: Portrait of a Killer.

#I’m not saying we should cull all alpha broskis      #but…     

I am. I’m gonna go ahead and say that.

It’s kind of a cheesy Jewel quote, but I love it: “What we call human nature in actuality is human habit.”

It only takes 15 days to lose a habit. Cull your local alpha.

fuckyeahpaganism

thirdoffive:

The mummified heart of a Norse giant.

While going through his famous grandfather’s belongings after his passing in 1937, violinist Lars Sigerson discovered this casket. It appears to have been passed from generation to generation within his family for hundreds of years. The explanation and whatever story that goes with it has been lost to the ages.

The inscription on the casket is written in old Norse runes and reads:
“Behold! Within this casket lies the heart of the fierce and terrible giant known as Hrungnir, slain this day by Fafrd the Red whose bravery and cunning shall live forever!”

future-electricflight

sator-technology-blog:

Aircraft designer and pilot Tom Peghiny joined the electric airplane revolution Sunday with a short flight under clear skies in Connecticut.
The first flight of the e-Spyder took Peghiny to an alitude of 400 feet and speeds reaching 55 mph. It followed Friday’s taxi tests and a “short hop” — less than 10 feet off the ground — down the runway at the Woodstock Airport. With child-like excitement, Peghiny told Wired.com the flights went flawlessly.
“It flies beautifully, it flies hands off,” he said, referring to the ease and stability exhibited by the electric airplane. After the first flight, Peghiny handed the aircraft over to a friend “so I could see it fly.”
His airplane is based on a Flightstar ultralight airframe he designed in the early 1980s and it is powered by a 20 kilowatt brushless motor developed by Yuneec International of China. The e-Spyder can fly for 40 minutes on the two lithium polymer batteries and it made several flights Sunday on a single charge. Peghiny said the motor, batteries and controller are “plug and play” technology similar to that found in remote control aircraft.
“It worked the first time we plugged it in and played,” he said.
Electric airplanes are experiencing a development boom similar to that seen during the first airplanes 100 years ago. Electric cars are getting all the headlines, but aircraft designers around the world are working at a feverish pitch to bring to market an electric airplane that meets Federal Aviation Administration standards. An electric airplane flew at Airventure, the massive annual airshow in Oshkosh, Wisc., for the first time last year.
Randall Fishman, the designer/pilot who flew his single seat ElectraFlyer-C at Oshkosh last summer, continues developing the plane and hopes to return to Airventure this year with a two-seat version. Another person who Peghiny says has been a help and inspiration is Mark Beierle, who is developing an electric powered version of his own ultralight called the eGull.
Peghiny is the president of Flight Design USA, which imports light sport aircraft from Germany, as well as the man behind the Flightstar ultralights. While visiting the Aero Expo in Friedrichshafen, Germany in April, he met Tian Lu, the visionary behind Yuneec’s electric propulsion system. The two signed an agreement to develop an FAA-legal electric ultralight, and Peghiny has been working on it ever since. His goal was to have it ready for Airventure, which starts next week. Yuneec will be there too with its own electric motor glider. Other electric airplanes also are expected at Oshkosh, and the whisper-quiet aircraft might steal the show from the usual assortment of thundering World War II fighters, deafening Harrier jump jet and impressive giants like the Airbus A380.
Single seat ultralights are regulated by the FAA and must meet specific requirements to be sold in the United States. No pilot’s license is required, though training is of course recommended. Peghiny says the e-Spyder should be available within next four months with a price tag somewhere around $24,000.
Peghiny says the e-Spyder is easy to fly and “it’s real nice not having all the shaking and coughing” associated with the two-stroke engine that powers a conventional Flightstar Spyder.